J. Chem. En. Sci. A.

CO to CO2 Using Magnesium Based Catalysts: An Overview

Gaurav Rattan , Maninder Kumar, Meenakshi Sheoran

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  • DOI Number
    https://doi.org/10.15415/jce.2015.21002 
KEYWORDS

CO , oxidation, Magnesium, Catalyst, Support, r e view, Automobile exhaust.

PUBLISHED DATE September 2015
PUBLISHER The Author(s) 2015. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications
ABSTRACT

Stringent environmental re gulations have been adopted by the government in order to decrease the emission of vehicular exhaust such as S o x, N o x, C o and unb urned hydrocarbons. t herefore, the de velopment and exploration of catalysts started in the last century for the oxidation of carbon monoxide by different methods have attracted many researchers. t herefore, lar ge number of catalysts have been modified and tested for C o oxidation. t he de veloped catalysts have the ability of 100% conversion. Keeping in view of the literature accumulated in the last few decades for C o oxidation, Magnesium based catalysts ha ve been reported by many scientists for C o oxidation due to its unique characteristics such as high catalytic performance at low temperatures and good durability and stability toward C o oxidation. t his article represents a short re view in tabular form which facilitates a quick view on compounds that have been reported with magnesium previously.

INTRODUCTION

Automobiles are a necessary evil, while they have made life easy and convenient; but they also complicated it with toxic emissions. Automobile exhaust significantly contributes to environment pollution. Pollution comes as a by product of the combustion process and evaporation of fuel itself. Million tons of gasoline burned in millions of car each year, moreover the number of vehicles is increasing exponentially. About 19 million vehicles are added every year across the world which will lead the environmental pollution at alarming level and with the expected increase in vehicles causes ever increasing global emissions. the primary pollutants from vehicles comprised of carbon monoxide (Co), hydrocarbons (hCs) and nitrogen oxides (Nox) [1]. these three harmful pollutants are major source of air pollution and it affects humans, vegetation, and atmosphere in number of ways. Among all types of exhaust gases carbon monoxide is most harmful [2]. it also contributes indirectly to global warming and ozone depletion [3]. thus, Co levels in the ambient air play a role in determining the air quality of a region.

Catalytic oxidation of Co is a simple and straightforward approach in order to curb the menace of stringent regulation adopted for vehicles as shown by equation 1.

2CO+O2--> CO2

due to incomplete combustion or partial combustion of fuel in the engine, it releases pollutants to atmosphere. therefore catalytic oxidation of Co to Co2 is a reaction studied especially by automotive industry [4-6]. Moreover Co2 found in the atmosphere is less harmful and is useful for vegetation. hence, Co oxidation has been studied extensively over various types of catalyst such as noble metals (Pt, Pd, rh, Au, etc.) [7-8], base metals (Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, etc.) [9-10] perovskite structures [11].

Noble metals are known for their high oxidation power and terms as paramount in automobile industry since the seventeenth century. Moreover they are thermally and mechantically stable. But the high cost of noble metals and their low availability provokes the researchers around to substitute them with other easily available and economical material which can be considered as an alternative to noble metals. in this regard transition base metals are widely studied for oxidation reactions [12-13]. intense literature reveals that Mg is easily available and good support for oxidation studies. Magnesium based catalysts have been studied in detail for Co oxidation attributed to the catalytic activity and stability tests [14-15]. the significant activity in the development of magnesium based catalyst for Co emissions control technology is also depicted in the many patents [16-17] and proceedings of seminars and symposia but still there is a gap in the literature for a review article solely devoted to magnesium based catalyst for Co oxidation. therefore, in order to fill the gap, the present review updates some of the data accumulated on magnesium based catalyst.

Page(s) 19-40
URL http://dspace.chitkara.edu.in/jspui/bitstream/1/635/3/21002_JCE_Rattan.pdf
ISSN Print : 2349-7564, Online : 2349-7769
DOI https://doi.org/10.15415/jce.2015.21002 
CONCLUSION

this review summarizes the advances in the magnesium based catalyst for Co oxidation. the composition, crystalline structure, chemical nature of the surface, porosity and other feature of the support are known to influence the dispersion and stabilisation of active phase. in oxidation of Co the support participate in the activation of the reactant especially oxygen. Magnesium floride can also be used as a support and metallic active phase to obtain active and selective catalyst for Co oxidation. the use of magnesium as a support resulted in significant modification of active phase and the mechanism of the formation of oxides, double oxide or metallic layer on its surface has been well recognised [29]. the higher catalytic performance for Co oxidation could be exhibited over silica supported gold catalyst by modified with proper amounts of magnesium oxide and preparation procedure [34]. the tabular data presented above can be used for carrying out further research for complete conversion of Co. the minimum temperature for Co conversion was found to be 250 K [34] by using Au/Mgo/Sio2 catalyst prepared by deposition precipitation method.

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