A K Sannigrahi
Mechanical Composting, Municipal solid wastes, Solid waste management rules, Vermicomposting, Waste to energy.
|PUBLISHED DATE||September 05, 2016|
|PUBLISHER||The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/ publications|
Management of Municipal Solid wastes (MSW) is a genuine problem to all Municipal Corporations irrespective to their size, population or financial condition in India. Scientific technologies are available for pollution free hygienic disposal of all biodegradable solid wastes by converting them to good quality compost and also for systematic recycling of non-biodegradable wastes for their beneficial utilization. Machineries are also available for converting Municipal solid wastes to energy for partial fulfillment of highly demanded electricity. But still all Municipal Corporation in India mainly depend on old open dumping of solid wastes in some low lying dump-yards creating known environmental pollution hazards. The Municipal authority, the district administration and the common citizens have to play a constructive role for overcoming this problem. Important challenges faced by Municipal authorities all over India are non-preparedness to handle huge quantity of MSW generated daily, lacking of awareness by common people on benefits of segregation of MSW at source, non-availability of infrastructure as well as expert / skilled manpower for scientific disposal of MSW, accurate forecasting about city wise MSW generation and proper encouragement to Public – private partnership (PPP) model for efficient management of MSW. Everyone is essential part of this management system. Citizens have to take the responsibility for segregating solid wastes at home before handing over to Municipal workers and for refraining themselves from throwing out any solid wastes. Municipal corporations have to consider MSW as important resource material, use it for beneficial purposes through vermicomposting and recycling, and to stop dumping of MSW at outskirt by unnecessary spending money on its transportation. It is mainly found that installation of costly machinery for mechanical composting and electricity generation have sometimes become not 2 much fruitful to Municipal authorities due to lack of their expertise as well as maintenance and repairing problem of machineries. Scientific disposal with the help of NGOs and Entrepreneurs are found more effective, employment generative and cheaper than adopting costly mechanical system. Paradigm shift in thought process of every citizen can change the situation of management of municipal solid waste successfully.
The new Solid Waste Management Rules 2016 has been announced by the Ministry of Environment, Government of India which is applicable in Municipal areas, urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships and even different areas under the control of Indian Railways, Airports, Defence establishments, various state and central government organizations, sea ports, special economic zones, place of pilgrims and of historical importance, etc. During announcement of this rule, the revised version of Solid Waste Management rules 2000 at a press conference, the then Minister of State (Independent Charge) of Environment, Sri Prakash Javadekar mentioned, “about 62 million tons of solid wastes are generated annually at present in India, out of which 5.6 million tons is plastic waste, 0.17 million tons biomedical waste, 7.9 million tons hazardous waste and 15 lakh tons is e-waste. The per capita waste generation in Indian cities ranges from 200 grams to 600 grams per day”. He also pointed out that only about 75 – 80 % of the Municipal solid wastes i.e. 43 million tons get collected, out of which 11.9 million tons (22 – 28 %) is treated while 31 million tons solid waste is dumped in landfill sites (PIB release, 2016). The major concern is the continual increase of waste generation from 62 million tons in 2016 to about 165 million tons in 2030 and 436 million tons in 2050. If dumping of solid waste continues at present rate without treatment, the additional requirement of land for dump yard will be about 1240 hectares per year and by 2031 the requirement of land will be 66000 hectares.
|ISSN||Print : 2349-7564, Online : 2349-7769|
Since the starting of Industrialisation all countries are facing problems of proper disposal of municipal solid wastes. In developing and under developed countries where people are not much aware on problems of dumping solid wastes to man and environment and not serious about health and hygiene, the solid waste management system is non-scientific and problematic. But in developed countries the awareness and cautiousness of common citizens forced stakeholders to implement scientific techniques strictly in solid waste management system. No one is daring to throw wastes outsides there. In western countries management of MSW is not at all problematic. Every Municipal authority in India is asking the respective state government either for more land area to use as dumping ground or for costly machineries to process the solid wastes but it is seen that medium scale composting within Municipality area is more economical due to less investment, less transportation cost, easy selling of compost and larger success. It also generates more employment opportunity. Hence Paradigms shift in thought process of every citizen is must for getting success in municipal solid waste management in India.