Leena Chhabra, Gurnam Singh, Sanjeev Kumar and Rajeev Sharma
|PUBLISHED DATE||September 05, 2016|
|PUBLISHER||The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/ publications|
Antibacterial activity of ethanolic, distilled water and methanol extract of the leaves of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) were studied against Escherichia coli and Bacillus licheniformis by agar well diffusion method. Results obtained showed that the growth of both E.coli and B.licheniformis were inhibited by all the three extracts of dried Leaf Extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.). The antibacterial activity of these extracts against selected bacterial stains depends on the type of solvent used for extraction. The present study revealed that Leaf Extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) can be exploited for new potent antibacterial agents.
Ancient time, in search for rescue for their disease, the people looked for the drugs in nature. The beginning of the medicinal plants use were instinctive, as in the case with animals. (Stojanoski, 1999). In view of the fact that at that time there was no sufficient information either concerning the reason for the illness or concerning which plant and how it could be utilized as a cure, everything was based on the experience. In Ancient time, the reason for the usage of specific medicinal plants for treatment of certain diseases was being discovered thus, the medicinal plants usage gradually abandoned the empiric framework(Kelly, 2009).
While the old people used medicinal plants primarily as simple pharmaceutical forms- infusions, decoctions and macerations. In the middle ages, particularly between 16th and 18th centuries, the demand for compound drugs was increased (Tpolak, 2005). The compound drugs comprised medicinal plants along with drugs of animal and plant origin. If the drug compound as produced from a number of medicinal plants, rare animals, and minerals, it was highly valued and sold expensively (Bojadzievski, 1992).
Early 19th century was a turning point in the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. The discovery, substantiation and isolation of alkaloids from poppy (1806), quinine (1820), pomegranate (1878) and other plants then the isolation of glycosides marked the beginning of scientific pharmacy (Lukic, 1985). Herbal medicine, also called botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to using a plant’s seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark or flowers for medicinal purposes (Abeloff, 2008). Plants have been used for medicinal purpose long before recorded history. Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in theri healing rituals, while others developed traditional medicinal system (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purpose (Altschuler et. al., 2007).
India has a rich heritage of traditional medicine which formed the basis of health care since earliest days of mankind. A large number of herbs or medicinal plant parts are used in several formulations for the treatment of many diseases caused by microbes. Herbal medicine is still the main stay of about 75-80% of the whole population, mainly in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that almost 80% of the people worldwide rely on plant based medicines for their primary health care needs (Famsworth, 1985) and India happens to be the largest user of traditional medical cure, using 7000 plant species.
Medicinal plants represents a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Plants are used medicinally in different countries and are a source of many potent and powerful drugs (Srivastava et. al., 1996). A wide range of medicinal plant parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, twigs, etc.) extracts are used as raw drugs as they possess many medicinal properties. Some of these raw drugs are collected in smaller quantities by the local communities and folk healers for local use while many raw drugs are collected in larger quantities and traded to herbal industries as raw material (Uniyal et. al., 2006). There are several reports on the antimicrobial activity of different herbal extracts in different regions of the world (Parekh et. al., 2005), but vast majority have not been adequately evaluated (Balandrin et. al., 1985)..
The increasing failure of chemotherapies and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbial infections agents have led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity (Rich-Krc et. al., 1996; Martins et. al., 2001). Antibacterial properties of various plants parts have been well documented for some of the medicinal plants for the past two decades (Leven et. al., 1979).
In India the herbal remedies is so popular that the government of India has created a separate department (AYUSH) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The National Medicinal Plants Board was also established in 2000 by the Indian government in order to deal with the herbal medicinal system (Bottcher, 1965).
Virulent strains of Gram negative bacterial E.coli can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection and neomatal meningitis. Some strains of E.coli. bacterial may also cause severe anemia or kidney failure, which can lead to death (http:www.m.webmd.com/) Gram positive bacteria B.licheniformis is commonly associated with food spoilage and poisoning (Peopo et. al.,2003). Food poisoning by B.licheniformis is characterised by diarrhea and vomiting.
Dalbergia Sisoo Roxb. (Shisham, Sisoo, Tally) internationally premier timber species of the rosewood genus Dalbergia. Sisoo is reported a stimulant used in folk medicine and remedies (Oxford Dictionaries Online, 2014). It is used in conditions like emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach troubles and skin diseases (Ali, 2007). Pharmacological investigations indicated that its leaves posses different medicinal properties as antimicrobial (Mukhtar et. al., 2006), anti-inflammatory (Prabu et. al., 2006), antioxidant (Qjewale, 2005), antidiarrhoel (Majumdar et. al., 2005), antifertility (Ucendu and Leek, 1999), antiplamodial (Beldjoundi et. al., 2003), larvicidal and mosquito repellant activity (Ansari et.al., 2008).
But very little studies have been done on the antibacterial activity of plant extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.). Keeping in view the importance of different types of infections caused by bacteria the present study was designed to find out the antibacterial potentiality of Leaf Extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) against selected stains of bacteria.
|ISSN||Print : 2349-7564, Online : 2349-7769|
The present study reveals the presence of many secondary metabolites in the root extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.). It has also confirmed that the root extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) could be used for the treatment of various infections. The root extracts of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) have potent antibacterial activity when compared with conventionally used drugs and is almost equipotent to the standard (gentamycin) antibacterial drug. The results lend credence to the folkloric use of the root of Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) in treating bacterial infection and show that Dalbergia Sisso (Roxb.) may be explored for its further phytochemical profile to identify the active constituents responsible for their use as potent antibacterial agents.