CO to CO2 Using Magnesium Based Catalysts: An Overview

  • Gaurav Rattan Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology Panjab university Chandigarh-160014, India
  • Maninder Kumar Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar university institute of Chemical Engineering and technology Panjab university Chandigarh-160014, India
  • Meenakshi Sheoran Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology Panjab university Chandigarh-160014, India
Keywords: CO, oxidation, Magnesium, Catalyst, Support, review, Automobile exhaust


Stringent environmental re gulations have been adopted by the government in order to decrease the emission of vehicular exhaust such as S o x, N o x, C o and unb urned hydrocarbons. t herefore, the de velopment and exploration of catalysts started in the last century for the oxidation of carbon monoxide by different methods have attracted many researchers. t herefore, lar ge number of catalysts have been modified and tested for C o oxidation. t he de veloped catalysts have the ability of 100% conversion. Keeping in view of the literature accumulated in the last few decades for C o oxidation, Magnesium based catalysts ha ve been reported by many scientists for C o oxidation due to its unique characteristics such as high catalytic performance at low temperatures and good durability and stability toward C o oxidation. t his article represents a short re view in tabular form which facilitates a quick view on compounds that have been reported with magnesium previously.


[1] Farrauto, R.J., Heck, R.M. Automobile exhaust catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 221, 443-457 (2001).
[2] Brugge, D., Durant., J.L., Rioux, C. Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks.Environmental health, 6, 23 (2007).
[3] Kumar, G., Mohan, S., Sampath, V., Jeena, S., et al. Carbon Monoxide Pollution Levels at Environmentally different Sites.J. Ind. Geophys. Union,12 (1), 31-40 (2008).
[4] Gallopoulos, N., SAE, 92072 (1992).
[5] Kaiser, E.W., Siegel, W.O., Baidar, L.M., Lawson, S.P., Cramer, C.F., Dobbins, K.L., Roth, P., Smokovitz, M., SAE, 94063 (1994).
[6] Boam, D.J., Clark, T.A., Hobbs, K.E., SAE, 950930 (1995).
[7] Wojciechowska, M., Haber, J., Ski, M.Z., Przystajkob, W., Effect of MgF2 and Al2o3supports on the structure and catalytic activity of copper–manganese oxide catalysts. Catalysis Letters, 113, 46-53 (2007).
[8] Derekaya, F.B., Güldür, Ç. Activity and selectivity of Co oxidation in H2 rich stream over the Ag/Co/Ce mixed oxide catalysts. International journal of hydrogen energy, 35, 2247-2261(2010).
[9] Klauer, F., Paper presented at 1967 Mine rescue superintendents Conference (National Coal Board), Published by the Auergesellschaft GMBH, Berlin (1967).
[10] Yoon, C., Cocke, D. L., Characterisation of copper-manganese oxide catalysts: effect of precipitate ageing upon the structure and morphology of precursors and catalyst. Appl. Surf. Sci., 31, 118-150 (1988).
[11] Porta, P., Ciambelli, P., Cimino, S., Rossi, D., Lisi, L., Minelli, G., Russo, G., A Feo3(A=La, Nd, Sm) and LaFe1−xMgxo3 perovskites as methane combustion and Cooxidation catalysts: structural, redox and catalytic properties. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 29, 239-250 (2001).
[12] Strizhak, P.E., Didenko, O.Z., Kosmambetova, G.R., Size effect in Co oxidation over magnesia-supported ZnO nanoparticles. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 335, 14-23 (2011).
[13] Goslar, J., Wojciechowska, M., Zielinski, M., Foralewska, i.t. Przystajko, W., Structure Characterization and Catalytic Properties of Cr2o3 doped with MgoSupported on MgF2. Acta Physica Polnica A, 108, 2, 24-28 (2005).
[14] Manriquez, M.E., Lopez T., Gomez, R., Cooxidation on Cu/MgO-Sio2 Sol-Gel derived Catalysts. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 26, 853-857 (2003).
[15] Gao, F., Dong, L., Yu, Q., Wu, X., Tang, C., Qi, L., Liu, B., Sun, K., Chen, Y., textural, structural, and morphological characterizations and catalytic activity of nanosized Ceo2–Mox (M = Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+) mixed oxides for Co oxidation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 354, 341-352 (2011).
[16] Brown, H et al. Catalysts for oxidation of carbon monoxide. u.S. Patent 4,943,550, issued July 24, 1990.
[17] Grunwaldt, J. D., Teuissen, H., Process for the catalytic oxidation of carbonaceous compounds. u.S. Patent 6,692,713, issued February 17, 2004.
[18] Ghaffari, A., Shamekhi, A. H., Saki, A., Kamrani, E., Adaptive fuzzy control for air-fuel ratio of automobile spark ignition engine.World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology48, 284-292 (2008).
[19] Henein, N.A., Tagomori, M.K., Cold-start hydrocarbon emissions in port-injected gasoline engine. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 25, 563-593 (1999).
[20] Callan & Company. Callan & Co. Ltd.: Scottsdale, AZ. (2001).
[21] Bray, W.C., Lamb, A.B., Frazer, J.C.W. the removal of carbon monoxide from air. The journals of industrial and engineering chemistry, 1920, 12, 213-221.
[22] Takeda, K., Yaegashi, t., Sekiguchi, K., Saito, K., SAE, 950074 (1995).
[23] Woodley, J.M., Pollard, D.J., Biocatalysis for pharmaceutical intermediates: The future is now. Trends in biochemistry, 25, 66-73 (2007).
[24] Wang, J., Shu, Q., Zhang, Q., Xu, G., Nawaz, Z., Wang, d., Synthesis of biodiesel from cottonseed oil and methanol using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology, 90, 1002-1008 (2009).
[25] Cohn, G., Process for selectively removing carbon monoxide from hydrogen-containing gases. US Patent No. 3, 216(1963) 783. (1963)
[26] Wojciechowska, M., Przystajko, W., Zielin ́ski, M., Co oxidation catalysts based on copper and manganese or cobalt oxides supported on MgF2 and Al2o3.Catalysis Today, 119, 338-341(2007).
[27] Chen, Y.W., Chen, H.J., Lee, D.S., Au/Co3o4–tio2 catalysts for preferential oxidation of Co in H2 stream. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 363–364, 470– 480(2012).
[28] Becker, C., Henry, C.R., Cluster size dependent kinetics for the oxidation of Co on a Pd/MgO (100) model catalyst. Surface Science, 352-354, 457-462 (1996).
[29] Kim, S.H.K., Cho, S.H.C., Park, J.S., Choi, S.H., Lee, S.K., Effect of water vapour on carbon monoxide oxidation over promoted platinum catalysts. Catalysis Letters, 103, 257-261 (2005).
[30] Arnby, K., Törncrona, A., Skoglundh, M., influence of ammonia on Co and methanol oxidation over Pt/γAl2o3 catalysts modified by Mg. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 49, 51-59 (2004).
[31] Carabineiro, S.A.C., Bogdanchikova, N., Pestryakov, A., Tavares, P.B., Fernandes, L.S.G., Figueiredo, J.L., Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for Cooxidation. Nanoscale Research Letters, 6, 435 (2011).
[32] Chen, Y.Z., Chang, C.T., Liaw, B.J., Chen, Y.P., Characteristics of Au/MgxAlohydrotalcite catalysts in Co selective oxidation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 300, 80-88 (2009).
[33] Pitchon, V., Dobrosz, I., Jiratova, K., Rynkowski, J.M., Effect of the preparation of supported gold particles on the catalytic activity in Co oxidation reaction. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 234, 187-197 (2005).
[34] Chu, W., Luo, H.X.J.L., Zhang, T., impacts of MgO promoter and preparation procedure on meso-silica supported nano gold catalysts for carbon monoxide total oxidation at low temperature. Chemical Engineering Journal, 170, 419-423 (2011).
[35] Foralewska, I.T., Przystajko, W., Pietrowski, M., Zielinski, M., Wojciechowski, M., Effect of MgO content in the support of Au/MgF2–Mgo catalysts on Co oxidation. Reac. Kinet. Mech. Cat., 100, 111-121 (2010).
[36] Foralewska, I.T., Ski, M.Z., Pietrowski, M., Przystajko, W., Wojciechowska, M., iridium supported on MgF2–Mgo as catalyst for Co oxidation. Catalysis Today, 176, 263-266 (2011).
[37] Xul, H., Shuyong, W., Chunrong, S.Y., influence of MgO contents on silica-supported nano-size gold catalyst for carbon monoxide total oxidation. Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, 20, 498-502 (2011).
[38] Musick, J.K., Williams, F.W., Catalytic decomposition of halogenated hydrocarbons over hopcalite Catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem., Prod. Res., 13, 175-179 (1974).
[39] Mirzaei, A.A., Shaterian, H.R., Habibi, M., Hutchings, G.S., Taylor, S.H., Characterisation of copper-manganese oxide catalysts: effect of precipitate ageing upon the structure and morphology of precursors and catalysts. Appl. Catal. A: Gen., 253, 499-508 (2003).
[40] Zimowska, M., Zym, A.M., Janik, R., Machej, T., Gurgul, J., Socha, R.P., Podobinski, J., Serwicka, E.M., Catalytic combustion of toluene over mixed Cu–Mn oxides. Catalysis Today, 119, 321-326 (2007).
[41] Strizhal, P.E., Demidenko, O.Z., Kosmambetova, G.R., Synthesis of Nanosized ZnO/MgoSolid and its Catalytic Activity for Cooxidation. Chin. J. Catal., 29, 1079-1083, 2008.
[42] Wojciechowska, M., Foralewska, I.T., Przystajko, W., Zielinski, M., Catalytic properties of Cr2O3 doped with MgO supported on MgF2 and Al2o3. Catalysis Letters, 104, 3-4 (2005).
[43] Kalchuk, N.S., Strizhak, P.E., Kosmambetova, G.R., Didenko, O.Z., Effect of the means of preparation of nanodispersed CuO/MgO catalysts on their activity in the oxidation of Co. Theoretical and Experimental Chemistry, 44, 3 (2008).
[44] Rida, K., Benabbas, A., Bouremmad, F., Pen, M.A., influence of the synthesis method on structural properties and catalytic activity for oxidation of Co and C3H6 of pirochromite MgCr2o4. Applied Catalysis A: General, 375, 101-106(2010).
[45] Shobaky, G.A.E., Deraz, N.A.M., Surface and catalytic properties of cobaltic oxide supported on an active magnesia. Materials Letters, 47, 231-240 (2001).
[46] Ilyina, V.E., Mishakov, V.i., Vedyagin, A.A., Bedilo, F.A., Aerogel method for preparation of nanocrystalline Coox_Mgo and Vox_Mgo catalysts. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol, 68, 423-428 (2013).
[47] Mokhtar, M., Basahel, S.N., Angary, Y.O.A., Nanosized spinel oxide catalysts for Co-oxidation prepared via CoMnMgAl quaternary hydrotalcite route. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 493, 376-384 (2010).
[48] Haruta, M., Nanoparticulate Gold Catalysts for Low-temperature Cooxidation. Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, 7, 163-172(2004).
[49] Haruta, M., Cunningham, d.A.h., Vogel, W., Negative activation energies in Cooxidation over an icosahedral Au/Mg(oh)2 catalyst. Catalysis Letters, 63, 43-47(1999).
[50] Haruta, M., Bamwenda, G.R., Tsubota, S., Nakamura, T., The influence of the preparation methods on the catalytic activity of platinum and gold supported on tio2for Co oxidation. Catalysis Letters, 44, 83-87(1997).
[51] Haruta, M., Yamada, N., Kobayashi, T., Iijima, S., Gold catalysts prepared by coprecipitation for low-temperature oxidation of hydrogen and of carbon monoxide. Journals of catalysis, 115, 291-317(1989).
[52] Haruta, M., Size and support dependency in the catalysis of gold, Catalysis Today, 36, 153-166(1997).
[53] Zecchina, A., Lofthouse, M.G., Stone, F.S., reflectance Spectra of Surface States in Magnesium oxide and Calcium oxide. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.i, 71, 1476-1490(1975).
[54] Coluccia, S., tench, A.J., Proc. 7th int. Congr. Catalysis, Tokyo, 1980 (Kodansha/Elsevier, Tokyo/Amsterdam, 1981) p. 1154, 1980.
[55] Garrone, E., Stone, F.S., 8th int. Congr. Catalysis, Berlin, vol. 3 (1984) 441.
[56] Chen, Y.Z., Chang, C.T., Liaw, B.J., Huang, C.T., Preparation of Au/MgxAlohydrotalcite catalysts for Co oxidation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 332, 216-224(2007).
[57] Pirogova, G.N., Panich, N.M., Korostelev, R.L., Voronin, Y.E., Popov, N.N., regularities of formation and catalytic properties of cobaltites in the oxidation of Co and hydrocarbons and in the reduction of Nitrogen oxides. Russian Chemical Bulletin, International Edition, 49, 9, 1547-1550(2000).
[58] Cimino, A., Gazzoli, D., Indovina, V., Moretti, G., Occhiuzzi, M., Pepe, F., high and low surface area Nio–Mgo and Coo–Mgo solid solutions: a study of XPS surface composition and Co oxidation activity. Topics in Catalysis, 8, 171-178 (1999).
[59] Lavenson, D., The Stability and Catalytic reactivity of Colloidal Palladium Nanoparticles on Al2o3Supports. research Accomplishments, Materials, University of New Mexico, (2006).
[60] Cunningham, D.A.H., Vogel, W., Haruta, M., Negative activation energies in Cooxidation over an icosahedral Au/Mg(oh)2 catalyst. Catalysis Letters, 63, 43-47(1999).
[61] Grzybowska, G., Gasior, B., Samson, K., Ruszel, M., Haber, J., oxidation of Co and C3 hydrocarbons on gold dispersed on oxide supports. Catalysis Today, 91–92, 131-135(2004).
[62] Yuan, Z.Y., Cao, J.L., Shao, G.S., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., Cuo catalysts supported on attapulgite clay for low-temperature Co oxidation. Catalysis Communications, 9, 2555-2559 (2008).
[63] Haruta, M., Okumura, M., Tsubota, S., Preparation of supported gold catalysts by gas-phase grafting of gold acetylacetonate for low-temperature oxidation of Co and of h2. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 199, 73-84 (2003).
[64] Eyubova, S.M., Yagodovskii, V.D., the oxidation of Carbon Monoxide on a Catalyst with a Spinel Structure Containing Mg Ferrite. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 81, 544-548 (2007).
[65] Bhargava, A., Alarco, J., Mackinnon, I., Page, d., Ilyushechkin, A., Synthesis and characterisation of nanoscale magnesium oxide powders and their application in thick films of Bi2Sr2CaCu2o8. Mater. Lett., 34, 133-142, (1998).
[66] Klabunde, K., Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry, Wiley Interscience, (2001).
[67]Garcia, M.F., Arias, A.M., Hanson, J.C., Rodriguez, J.A., Nanostructured oxides in Chemistry: Characterization and Properties. Chemical Reviews, 104, 4063(2004).
[68] Prasad, R., Rattan, G., Preparation Methods and Applications of Cuo-Ceo2 Catalysts: A Short review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 5, 7-30(2010).
[69] Shobaky, H.G.E., Fahmy, Y.M., Nickel cuprate supported on cordierite as an active catalyst for Co oxidation by O2. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 63, 168-177(2006).
[70] Molla, S.A.E., Shobaky, G.A.E., Fahmy, Y.M., Shobaky, H.G.E., Catalytic Conversion of isopropanol and Cooxidation in Presence of Nio Supported on Modified Cordierite. The Open Catalysis Journal, 4, 9-17(2011).
[71] Henry, C.R., Piccolo, L., Becker, C., Reaction between Co and a pre-adsorbed oxygen layer on supported palladium clusters. Applied Surface Science, 164, 156-162 (2000).
[72] Miyake, T., Matsuda, E., Tanaka, S., Koike, K., Tanaka, A., Sano, M., Synthesis of one-dimensional microporous todorokite and its catalytic activity in Co oxidation. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 34, 535-549 (2008).
[73] Schuth, F., Jia, C.J., Liu, Y., Bongard, H., Very Low-temperature Cooxidation over Colloidally deposited Gold Nanoparticles on Mg (oh)2 and MgO. J. AM, Chem. Soc., 9, 132, 1520-1522 (2010).
[74] Yakimova, M.S., Ivanov, V.K., Polezhaeva, O.S., Trushin, A.A., Lermontov, A.S., Tretyakov, Y.D., oxidation of Co on nanocrystalline ceria promoted by transition metal oxides. ISSN 0012-5008, Doklady Chemistry, 427, 186–189 (2009).
[75] Schüth, F., Jia, C.J., Yong, L., Schwickardi, M., Weidenthaler, C., Spliethoff, B., Schmidt, W., Small gold particles supported on MgFe2o4 nanocrystals as novel catalyst for Co oxidation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 386, 94-100(2010).
[76] Margitfalvi, J.L., Heged, M.S., Szegedi, A., Sajó, I., Modification of Au/MgO catalysts used in low-temperature Co oxidation with Mn and Fe. Applied Catalysis A: General, 272, 87-97 (2004).
[77] Fattah, Z., Rezaei, M., Biabani-ravandi, A., & Irankhah, A. Preparation of Co–Mgo mixed oxide nanocatalysts for low-temperature Co oxidation: optimization of preparation conditions.Process Safety and Environmental Protection, (2013).
How to Cite
Gaurav Rattan, Maninder Kumar, & Meenakshi Sheoran. (2015). CO to CO2 Using Magnesium Based Catalysts: An Overview. Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and Its Applications, 2(1), 19-40. Retrieved from