Challenges and Responsibilities in Successful Management of Municipal Solid Wastes in India
Management of Municipal Solid wastes (MSW) is a genuine problem to all Municipal Corporations irrespective to their size, population or financial condition in India. Scientific technologies are available for pollution free hygienic disposal of all biodegradable solid wastes by converting them to good quality compost and also for systematic recycling of non-biodegradable wastes for their beneficial utilization. Machineries are also available for converting Municipal solid wastes to energy for partial fulfillment of highly demanded electricity. But still all Municipal Corporation in India mainly depend on old open dumping of solid wastes in some low lying dump-yards creating known environmental pollution hazards. The Municipal authority, the district administration and the common citizens have to play a constructive role for overcoming this problem. Important challenges faced by Municipal authorities all over India are non-preparedness to handle huge quantity of MSW generated daily, lacking of awareness by common people on benefits of segregation of MSW at source, non-availability of infrastructure as well as expert / skilled manpower for scientific disposal of MSW, accurate forecasting about city wise MSW generation and proper encouragement to Public – private partnership (PPP) model for efficient management of MSW. Everyone is essential part of this management system. Citizens have to take the responsibility for segregating solid wastes at home before handing over to Municipal workers and for refraining themselves from throwing out any solid wastes. Municipal corporations have to consider MSW as important resource material, use it for beneficial purposes through vermicomposting and recycling, and to stop dumping of MSW at outskirt by unnecessary spending money on its transportation. It is mainly found that installation of costly machinery for mechanical composting and electricity generation have sometimes become not 2 much fruitful to Municipal authorities due to lack of their expertise as well as maintenance and repairing problem of machineries. Scientific disposal with the help of NGOs and Entrepreneurs are found more effective, employment generative and cheaper than adopting costly mechanical system. Paradigm shift in thought process of every citizen can change the situation of management of municipal solid waste successfully.
Ahmed, S.A., & Ali, M. (2004). Partnerships for solid waste management in developing countries : Linking theories to realities. Habitat International, 28, 467–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(03)00044-4. Accessed on 25 Nov 2016.
C P C B (2013). Status Report on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, Delhi. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/divisionsofheadoffice/pcp/MSW_Report.pdf. Accessed 19 May 2016.
Hoornweg, D., & Tata, P.B. (2012). What a waste – A global review of solid waste management. World Bank’s Urban Development & Local Government Unit, (pp. 80-83),Washington, DC 20433, USA. https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANDEVLOPMENT/ Resource/336387-1334852618766/ what_a_waste2012_Final.pdf. Accessed on 30 Nov 2016. 15.
International Energy Agency (2008). Turning a liability into an Asset : Landfill methane utilization potential in India. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/India_methane.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2016.
Joshi, R., & Ahmed, S. (2016). Status and challenges of municipal solid waste management in India : A review. Cogent Environmental Science, 2, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311843.2016.1139434. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
Kansal, A. (2002). Solid waste management strategies for India. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 22, 444–448.
Kaushal, R.K., Varghese, G.K., & Chabukdhara, M. (2012). Municipal solid waste management in India – Current state and future challenges : A review. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 4(4), 1473–1489.
Kumar, S., Bhattacharyya, J.K., Vaidya, A.N., Chakrabarti, T., Devotta, S., & Akolkar, A.B. (2009). Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: An insight. Waste Management, 29, 883–895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.04.011. Accessed 20 Aug 2016..
Mor, S., Ravindra, K., Dahiya, R.P., & Chandra, A. (2006). Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118, 435–446.
Nayak, M. (2013). New age alchemists. Business today. June 9, 2013. Available at http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/companies-that-are-making-wealth-fromwaste/ 1/195163.html. Accessed 10 Aug 2016..
PIB Release (2016). Solid Wastes Management Rules revised after 16 years. Press Information Bureau, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India, Print Release dated 5 April 2016. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/print release.aspx? relid=138591. Accessed 17 Aug 2016..
Planning Commission Report (2014). Reports of the Task force on waste to energy (vol-I) (in the context of Integrated MSW management). http://planningcommision.nic.in/reports/genrep/rep_wte1205.pdf. Accessed 20 Aug 2016.
Saha, J.K., Panwar, N., & Singh, M. V. (2010). An Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste compost quality produced in different cities of India with the perspective of developing quality control indices. Waste Management, 30, 192–201.
Sannigrahi, A.K. (2011). Agriculture and Waste Management for Sustainable Future. (pp. 71-123), New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi.
Sannigrahi, A. K. (2015). Harvesting Wealth from the Municipal Solid Wastes under Clean India Movement. Souvenir for All India Seminar on Advances in Engineering and Technology for Sustainable Development, (pp. 37–47), Organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Pantnagar Local Chapter and GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, June 12–13, 2015.
Sannigrahi, A.K., & Sannigrahi, D. (2006). Two-stage composting technique for rapid and beneficial utilization of firm wastes. Indian Farmers’ Digest, 39(11), 17–21. 16.
Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Mahmood, G., & Trivedi, R.C. (2008). Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities – A review. Waste Management, 28, 459–467.
Siddiqui, F.Z., & Khan, E. (2011). Landfill gas recovery and its utilization in India: Current status, potential prospects and policy implications. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 3, 174–183.
Singhal, S., & Pandey, S. (2000). Solid waste management in India: Status and future directions. TERI Information Monitor on Environmental Sciences, 6, 1–4.
Vashishtha, A. (2014). Exciting breakthrough as Indian scientists ‘turn plastic into petrol and diesel’. Daily Mail, 17 August 2014. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-2727285/Waste-not-wantnot- New-technology-turn-plastic-petrol-diesel.html. Accessed 14 Aug 2016.
Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications (J. Chem. En. Sci. A.) by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://jce.chitkara.edu.in. This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.
View Legal Code of the above mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
|Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jce.chitkara.edu.in