Potential of Biochar as Cost Effective Adsorbent in Removal of Heavy Metals Ions From Aqueous Phase: A Mini Review

  • Lata Rani Centre for Water Sciences, Chitkara University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Chitkara University, Punjab-140401, India; School of Basic Sciences, Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh-174103, India
  • Jyotsna Kaushal Centre for Water Sciences, Chitkara University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Chitkara University, Punjab-140401, India
  • Arun Lal Srivastav Chitkara University School of Engineering & Technology, Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh-174103, India
Keywords: Adsorption, biochar, heavy metals ions, contaminated water, Purification


Due to industrialization and increasing population, wastewater treatment has become a big challenge. There are numerous techniques such as ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulation, flocculation, floating and electrochemical approach developed for the remediation of contaminants from wastewater. But, now it is necessary to develop an approach which should has high efficiency, less expensive and environmental friendly, so that limitation of existing techniques can be overcome. Recent developments of biochar have attracted the researchers into this area. Different methods are discovered to synthesized biochar for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. In this review, biochar are elaborated and critically discussed which have reported for the removal of metallic pollutants present in waste water.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrafioti, E., Kalderis, D. & Diamadopoulos, E. (2014). Arsenic and chromium removal from water using biochars derived from rice husk, organic solid wastes and sewage sludge. J. Environ. Manag., 133, 309–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.007

Ahmad, Z., Gao, B., Mosa, A., Yu, H., Yin, X., Bashir, A., Ghoveisi, H. & Wang, S. (2018). Removal of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by biochars derived from potassiumrich biomass. J. Clean. Prod., 99, 19–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.133

Cao, X., Ma, L., Gao, B. & Harris, W. (2009). Dairymanure derived biochar effectively sorbs lead and atrazine. Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 3285–3291. https://doi.org/10.1021/es803092k

Demim, S., Drouiche, N., Aouabed, A., Benayad, T., Dendene-Badache, O. & Semsari, S. (2016). Cadmium and nickel: Assessment of the physiological effects and heavy metal removal using a response surface approach by L. gibba. J. Ecolog. Eng., 61, 426-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.10.016

Dong, H., Deng, J., Xie, Y., Zhang, C., Jiang, Z., Cheng, Y., Hou, K. & Zeng, G. (2017). Stabilization of nanoscalezerovalent iron (nZVI) with modified biochar for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. J. Hazard. Mater., 332, 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.03.002

Gleick, P.H. (2003). Global freshwater resources: softpath solutions for the 21st century. Science, 302, 1524–1528. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1089967

Hollister, C.C., Bisogni, J.J. & Lehmann, J. (2013). Ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate sorption to and solute leaching from biochars prepared from corn stover (L.) and oak wood (spp.). J. Environ. Qual., 42(1), 137–144. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2012.0033

Inyang, M., Gao, B., Yao, Y., Xue, Y., Zimmerman, A.R., Pullammanappallil, P. & Cao, X. (2012). Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by biochars derived from anaerobically digested biomass. Bioresource Technology, 110, 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.072

Jin, H., Capareda, S., Chang, Z., Gao, J., Xu, Y. & Zhang, J. (2014). Biochar pyrolytically produced from municipal solid wastes for aqueous As(V) removal: Adsorption property and its improvement with KOH activation. Bioresour. Technol., 169, 622–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.103

Keiluweit M. & Kleber M. (2009). Molecular-Level Interactions in Soils and Sediments: The Role of Aromatic pi-Systems. Environ. Sci. Technol., 43(10), 3421–3429. https://doi.org/10.1021/es8033044

Kim, W.K., Shim, T. Kim, Y.S., Hyun, S., Ryu, C., Park, Y.K. & Jung, J. (2013). Characterization of cadmium removal from aqueous solution by biochar produced from a giant Miscanthus at different pyrolytic temperatures. Bioresour. Technol., 138, 266–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.186

Kołodyńskaa R.D., Wnętrzak, R., Leahy, J.J., Hayes, M.H. B., Kwapiński, W. & Hubicki, Z. (2012). Kinetic and adsorptive characterization of biochar in metal ions removal. Chem. Eng. J., 197, 295–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.025

Kumar, S., Loganathan, V.A., Gupta, R.B. & Barnett, M.O. (2011). An Assessment of U(VI) removal from groundwater using biochar produced from hydrothermal carbonization. J. Environ. Manag., 92(10), 2504–2512.


Mahmoodi, N.M., Taghizadeh, M., Taghizadeh, A., Abdi, J.H., Bagher & Shekarchi, A.A. (2019). Biobased magnetic metal-organic framework nanocomposite: Ultrasound-assisted synthesis and pollutant (heavy metal and dye) removal from aqueous media. Appl. Surf. Sci., 480, 288–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.02.211

Mukherjee, A., Zimmerman, A.R., and Harris, W. (2011). Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars. Geoderma., 163(3-4), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.021

Pap, S., Bezanovic, V., Radonic, J., Babic, A., Saric, S., Adamovic, D., Sekulic, M.T. (2018). Synthesis of highly-efficient functionalized biochars from fruit industry waste biomass for the removal of chromium and lead. J. Mol. Liq., 268, 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.07.072

Saleh, M.E., El-Refaey, A.A. & Mahmoud, A.H. (2016). Effectiveness of sunflower seed husk biochar for

removing copper ions from wastewater: a comparative study. Soil and Water Research, 11, 53–63. https://doi.org/10.17221/274/2014-SWR

Sun, K., Keiluweit, M., Kleber, M., Pan, Z. & Xing, B. (2011). Sorption of fluorinated herbicides to plant biomass-derived biochars as a function of molecular structure. Bioresour. Technol., 102(21), 9897–9903. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.036

Usman, A., Sallam, A., Zhang, M., Vithanage, M., Ahmad, M., Al-Farraj, A., Ok, Y.S., Abduljabbar, A. & Al-Wabel, M. (2016). Sorption Process of Date Palm Biochar for Aqueous Cd (II) Removal: Efficiency and Mechanisms. Water Air Soil Pollut, 227, 449–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-3161-z

Wan, S., Wu, J., Zhou, S., Wang, R., Gao, B. & He, F. (2017). Enhanced lead and cadmium removal using biochar-supported hydrated manganese oxide (HMO) nanoparticles: Behavior and mechanism. Sci. Total Environ., 616-617, 1298–1306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.188

Wang, S., Gao, B., Li, Y., Mosa, A., Zimmerman, A. R., Ma, L. Q., Harris, W. G. & Migliaccio, K. W. (2015). Manganese oxide-modified biochars: preparation, characterization, and sorption of arsenate and lead. Bioresour. Technol., 181, 13–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.044

World Health Organization. Drinking-Water Fact-Sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs391/en/.

WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). Water for a Sustainable World; The United Nations World Water Development Report: UNESCO:Paris 2015; pp 1−67.

Zhang, Y.P., Adi, V.S.K., Huang, H.L., Lin, H.P. & Huang, Z.H., 2019. Adsorption of metal ions with biochars derived from biomass wastes in a fixed column: adsorption isotherm and process simulation. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 76, 240–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2019.03.046

How to Cite
Lata Rani, Jyotsna Kaushal, & Arun Lal Srivastav. (2019). Potential of Biochar as Cost Effective Adsorbent in Removal of Heavy Metals Ions From Aqueous Phase: A Mini Review. Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and Its Applications, 5(2), 29-34. https://doi.org/10.15415/jce.2019.52003